The Science Behind Proprioception Exercises

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If you’ve ever watched an athlete make a perfect landing after a backflip or seen someone effortlessly balance on a tightrope, you may have wondered how they do it. The answer lies in their ability to maintain their balance, which is possible because of a complex system known as proprioception. In this article, we’ll explore the science behind balance and proprioception exercises and how they work to improve balance and coordination.

What is Proprioception?

Proprioception is our body’s ability to sense where we are in space and how we’re moving. It allows us to walk without looking at our feet, maintain our balance on uneven terrain, and catch a ball thrown at us. The proprioceptive system comprises receptors in our muscles, tendons, and joints that send information about our body’s position and movement to our brain. When we perform proprioception exercises, we challenge our body to improve its proprioceptive abilities. These exercises typically involve balance and coordination drills that require us to use our muscles and joints in specific ways. Doing so teaches our brain to interpret better the information it receives from our proprioceptive system.

Balance and Proprioception Exercises

There are a variety of balance and proprioception exercises that athletes and non-athletes alike can do to improve their balance and coordination. Here are a few examples:

  • Single Leg Stance – Stand on one leg with your eyes closed and maintain your balance for as long as possible.
  • Balance Board – Stand on a balance board or wobble board and maintain your balance while the board moves.
  • Crossover Step – Ups – Stand before a step or box and step up with your right foot, bringing your left knee up to your chest. Then step down with your left foot and repeat on the other side.

Proprioception Training for Athletes

Athletes, in particular, can benefit from proprioception training, as it can improve their performance in sports that require balance and coordination. For example, gymnasts, dancers, and figure skaters all require exceptional proprioceptive abilities to perform at their best. Proprioception training for athletes typically involves exercises that mimic the movements they’ll be doing in their sport. For example, a gymnast might practise balance beam routines on a low balance beam with a coach spotting them. A basketball player might do single-leg squats to improve their jumping ability and landing on one foot.

The Science Behind Proprioception Exercises

So how do proprioception exercises work to improve our balance and coordination? It all comes down to neuroplasticity, the brain’s ability to adapt and change in response to new experiences. When we perform proprioception exercises, we challenge our brains to interpret new information from our proprioceptive system. This forces the brain to create new neural pathways that improve our proprioceptive abilities. Over time, these neural pathways become more efficient, making it easier for our brain to interpret proprioceptive information.

In addition to improving our balance and coordination, proprioception exercises can help prevent injuries. When our proprioceptive system functions properly, it can help us quickly adjust to prevent falls and other accidents. This is especially important for athletes at a higher risk of injury due to the physical demands of their sport.

The Benefits of Proprioception Exercises

In addition to improving balance and coordination, there are several other benefits to incorporating proprioception exercises into your workout routine. For example, studies have shown that proprioception training can improve postural stability in older adults, reducing the risk of falls and other injuries. Proprioception exercises can also improve joint position sense, which is important for activities that require precise movements, such as playing a musical instrument or performing surgery.

The Role of Feedback in Proprioception Exercises

One key aspect of proprioception exercises is the role of feedback in improving proprioceptive abilities. Feedback can come in many forms, such as visual feedback (e.g., watching yourself in a mirror), tactile feedback (e.g., feeling the surface you’re standing on), and auditory feedback (e.g., hearing the sound of your movements). Providing feedback during proprioception exercises can help our brain better interpret the information it receives from our proprioceptive system, leading to improved balance and coordination.


The next time you see an athlete make an incredible play or pull off a difficult manoeuvre, remember that their well-developed proprioceptive system allows them to do so with such ease. And if you want to improve your own balance and coordination, consider adding some proprioception exercises to your workout routine. With dedication and practice, you can improve your proprioceptive abilities and achieve new levels of balance and coordination.

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